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Simulation Results

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Chemical Mixtures


In Vivo Studies

We make use of a modified Ito’s liver bioassay to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and chemical mixtures. The results of these experiments is pharmacodynamic information for each chemical of interest; in particular, time-course number, size, and distribution of preneoplastic and neoplastic foci in the liver as a function of exposure dose.

Below are serial sections of a possible hepatocellular adenoma in a male F344 rat treated with PCB126.


Serial sections of a possible hepatocellular adenoma in a male F344 rat treated with PCB126: (A) hematoxylin and eosin, (B) glutathione S-transferase, (C) transforming growth factor a, (D) transforming growth factor \beta type II receptor, (E) bromo-deoxy-uridine

In addition to in vivo studies, we employ in silico tools like clonal growth modeling to gain insight into carcinogenesis by simulating the actual experiments using different series of biological assumptions.

In Vitro Studies

Similar to the in vivo experimentation described above, we make use of cell culture techniques to explore chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Our group typically uses immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (RHEK) as a model system for exposure.

Below are microscope photos detailing cell morphology results from an RHEK chemical carcinogenesis study:


control cells


acetone solvent control


benzo[a]pyrene + marine diesel fuel

Like with the in vivo experiments, we employ clonal growth modeling to augment knowledge gained from the cell culture experiments we perform.